OttawaMatters.com, in partnership with the Historical Society of Ottawa, brings you this weekly feature by Director James Powell, highlighting a moment in the city's history.
April 6, 1999
Of all of the events that have occurred through Ottawa's history, one of the most tragic is the OC Transpo Massacre.
For many Ottawa residents, the terrible events of April 6, 1999 are seared into their memories. They will always remember where they were and what they were doing when they heard the news.
While time heals, the scars remain both for the families directly affected, as well for Ottawa more generally. In a way, the city lost its innocence that day. We discovered that the mass shootings that we associate with places far away can happen in peaceful, law-abiding, Ottawa.
It began on a normal, early spring, Tuesday afternoon.
At about 2:30 p.m., Pierre Lebrun, a shy, 40-year-old man who had left OC Transpo's employ the previous January, pulled into the bus company's garage at 1500 St. Laurent Blvd. in the city's east end. He parked his 1997 Pontiac Sunfire a few yards away from a supervisor's office. After getting out of his car, he pulled out a high-powered, Remington, pump-action rifle capable of killing a moose from a mile away. Entering the building, Lebrun shouted out a line from the movie The Terminator "It's Judgement Day!"
Lebrun quickly fired his first shot that reportedly hit a steel drum before going through a metal locker and lodging in a computer monitor. Fragments struck two men, Richard Guertin and Joe Casagrande, injuring them, fortunately not seriously. Both fled down a hall, shouting for someone to call 911. A message quickly went out over the PA system that there was a man in the garage with a loaded gun. The more than 150 occupants of the building tried to get out of the building or hid in lockers or under tables.
Walking down a hallway, Lebrun claimed his first victim, shipper Brian Guay, 46, shooting him in the chest.
Stepping over Guay's prostrate body, Lebrun continued into the interior of the garage where a group of people were taking a coffee break at the back of a bus. The workers watched in horror as Lebrun fired a third time, killing mechanic Harry Schoenmakers, 44, before entering the bus where the terrified workers were standing. With his gun across his shoulder, he swore at them and snarled, "You think it's funny now."
Lebrun did not shoot but instead left the garage bay, set a small fire in a chemical room, and proceeded to a store room where four men were sitting. There, Lebrun claimed his third and fourth victims, Clare Davidson, 52, and David Lemay, 35.
Leaving the store room, Lebrun walked upstairs to a loft that overlooked the engine room. A few seconds later, another shot rang out. Lebrun had killed himself. His pockets were full of ammunition. It was only a matter of minutes, from the time he entered the garage to the time he took his own life.
Outside the garage, the emergency 911 system receive a call at 2:39 p.m. that there was a shooter at the OC Transpo garage.
The first police arrived at 2:44 p.m., with the heavily armed tactical unit arriving on the scene at 2:55 p.m. But they didn't know what they were dealing with. They moved cautiously.
Police entered the building at 3:47 p.m. and began to methodically comb the rooms and buses in the garage. Meanwhile, OC Transpo workers and onlookers waited outside, fearful of the fate of their colleagues and friends.
By 6 p.m., the police had found Pierre Lebrun's body in a pool of blood and could begin to stand down.
Information about Pierre Lebrun quickly surfaced.
He had been born in northern Ontario, in the small town of Moonbeam, located south-east of Kapuskasing. A quiet child with a stammer, he had been teased by other children throughout his childhood. His mother said he had been a "good son." He had started working for OC Transpo in the mid-1980s, but had quit his job as an audit clerk in January 1999. He had no criminal record.
Originally hired as a bus driver, he had been transferred to jobs that did not require as much interaction with people.
A quiet man, who struggled with depression, he had been at the receiving end of jabs and taunts about his speech impediment from certain co-workers. Some said that the harassment got worse after a 1996 transit strike during which Lebrun had gone on sick leave on the advice of a doctor rather than joining the picket line with his striking colleagues.
In 1997, Lebrun was fired after he hit a co-worker for allegedly making fun of his stammer. After the union intervened in his support, management rehired Lebrun on the provision that he attend anger management counselling. But problems continued. Lebrun actually approached Al Loney, the chairman of the OC Transit Commission, to complain about two colleagues. However, Lebrun did not provide details and asked Loney not to intervene. Instead, Lebrun said would go to his supervisor.
After leaving OC Transpo early in 1999, Lebrun travelled by car across Canada, spending time in British Columbia before heading south to Las Vegas.
After losing his money gambling, he drove directly back to Ottawa, arriving in the capital shortly before his assault on the OC Transpo garage.
He left a suicide note for his parents. In it, he said that he knew that he was "going to commit an unforgivable act," but that he had "no choice." He said he feared for his life and that people from the union had followed him out west and that they had "destroyed his life." He added that OC Transpo and the union "can't hide from what they do to me," that he was "not crazy, but very intelligent, too intelligent." He also listed the names of four co-workers who he didn't like, and three who had tried to help him. None of Lebrun's victims' names appeared on his 'hate list;' they were simply bystanders who just happened to be in the wrong place at the wrong time.
Over the days that followed the tragic event, grieving families, OC Transpo employees, and the broader community tried to come to terms with what had happened.
An impromptu memorial of flowers and black ribbons appeared in front of the bus company's head office on St. Laurent Boulevard. Among the tributes was a poem by Stacey Lemay, the daughter of David Lemay, entitled "My Dad, My Friend." The poem was also read out over the intercom at Stacey's high school. Three days after the shootings, buses across North America pulled over at 2:45 p.m. to observe a minute of silence as a tribute to their fallen comrades.
Later, an official five-member Coroner's jury sat down to hear the evidence about what happened that fateful day and what might have provoked Pierre Lebrun's actions.
On their first day on the job, members of the jury along with the general public were shocked to learn that the events of April 6, 1999 had claimed another life. A co-worker of Lebrun had hanged himself out of remorse. In a suicide note, he wrote that Lebrun had talked to him about shooting his managers but the co-worker had said nothing. He thought it had been a dark fantasy, not something Lebrun would ever do.
For eight weeks, the jury listened to testimony of OC Transpo management and workers, police, doctors, family members and other witnesses.
Portions of the 911 call were played out, and jury members were taken on a tour of the crime scene. Time was spent examining how long it took for the police to respond, and how Lebrun had obtained ammunition for his rifle despite his firearm licence having expired. A detailed step-by-step analysis was made of Lebrun's movements and actions from the moment he arrived at the OC Transpo garage until he killed himself. Much attention was also placed on the work environment at the OC Transpo garage.
It was very clear that management-worker relations had been poor for some time. One witness claimed that some managers didn't treat their employees as human beings. Worker morale was described as being low prior to the shooting.
Witnesses also testified that Lebrun had been a "loner" who had been repeatedly teased because of his stammer. A forensic psychiatrist argued that workplace harassment and what he called "a poisoned work environment" were factors in the tragedy. The 1997 incident when Lebrun had gone "berserk" and slapped a co-worker was also scrutinized.
Testimony revealed that after the incident Lebrun had not reached "set goals" in his required anger management training. As well, co-worker concerns about Lebrun's behaviour had been behind his transfer to the audit position.
After eight weeks of testimony, the coroner's jury came out with 77 recommendations of which 51 applied directly to OC Transpo. Sixteen recommendations addressed workplace harassment issues, including the development and implementation of workplace violence and harassment prevention policies and procedures by OC Transpo, and the delivery of a respectful workplace training program to all employees.
The jury demanded zero tolerance for harassment and violence in the workplace.
A further twelve recommendations were directed at workplace safety and security concerns, including such things as the establishment of emergency escape plans, the installation of emergency “pick-up” phones similar to ones in place at transit stops, and the accessibility of maps and blueprints of all buildings to police and other emergency workers.
Other recommendations were given to the police and government.
Most of the recommendations were quickly adopted, however, it took many years for the provinces to update their legislation to require employers to take preventative measures against workplace harassment and violence.
Quebec was the first, amending in 2004 its Act Respecting Labour Standards to ensure employees have the right to a working environment that is free from psychological harassment. Employers were also required to introduce measures to prevent such harassment. Manitoba and Saskatchewan followed in 2006 and 2007, respectively.
Ontario's Bill 168, which was an amendment to the province's Occupational Health and Safety Act, came into force in 2010. Under the legislation, employers are, among other things, required to determine the risks of workplace harassment and violence, and develop policies for investigating employee complaints and incidents.
In 2016, Bill 132, otherwise known as the Sexual Violence and Harassment Action Plan Act, came into force. The new legislation expanded the definition of workplace harassment to include sexual harassment. It also broadened employer responsibilities to conduct investigations into incidents and complaints of workplace harassment.
The Occupational Health and Safety Act was additionally amended to empower inspectors to require an employer to commission a report made by an unbiased person into a harassment incident or complaint. As well, the Limitations Act was amended to permit the prosecution of cases that occurred prior to the introduction of the Act.
With the laws and regulations in place, implementation is now key. We can only hope that instances of workplace violence and harassment are addressed early enough that similar future tragedies are averted.