OttawaMatters.com, in partnership with the Historical Society of Ottawa, brings you this weekly feature by Director James Powell, highlighting a moment in the city's history.
March 12, 1930
Lieutenant-Colonel William Barker is the most-highly decorated war hero in Canadian and British Commonwealth history.
An ace pilot during World War I, he received the Victoria Cross, the highest award in the Commonwealth for gallantry in the face of the enemy. He was also awarded the Distinguished Service Order (twice), the Military Cross (three times), the Croix de Guerre from France, and the Silver Medal for Military Valour from Italy (twice). He was additionally mentioned in dispatches three times. Active on the Western Front in France and on the Italian Front, he is credited with shooting down at least 50 enemy aircraft.
Despite being a household name 100 years ago, ranking beside his friend Billy Bishop another Canadian war ace and Victory Cross recipient, he is largely forgotten today. In part, this is likely due to his untimely death at 35 years of age in a tragic accident that occurred on March 12, 1930 in Ottawa.
Barker was born in a log cabin on a farm near the small town of Dauphin, Manitoba in 1894.
As a teenager, he was known for his keen eyesight and marksmanship. In December 1914, he enlisted in the 1st Canadian Mounted Rifles with whom he served as a machine gunner at Ypres.
In the spring of 1916, he volunteered to serve in the Royal Flying Corps first as a gunner and, following receipt of a commission as a second lieutenant, as an observer in the B.E.2 two-seater reconnaissance airplane.
He received his first MC doing aerial photography.
In July of that year, he recorded his first victory, driving down a German scout airplane using his observer's gun.
At the beginning of 1917, he was sent to flying school for four weeks' instruction to become a pilot. Promoted to flying officer in February 1917, Barker returned to the Western Front again in two-seater reconnaissance airplanes (the B.E.2 and the R.E.8), but this time seated in the front pilot's seat. Three months later, he was promoted to captain and given command of a flight of airplanes (four to six aircraft).
After being wounded in August 1917, he was transferred back to England to become a flight instructor.
Hating his new job, he quickly got himself reassigned to active duty in France, though not before getting into trouble doing acrobatics over London.
Barker began flying the Sopwith Camel, a single seater fighter, armed with twin synchronized machine guns. It proved to be a lethal combination of man and machine. Flying the highly manoeuvrable though temperamental Camel, Barker could fully exploit his skills as a marksman. Shortly after his return to France in late October he officially became an ace, downing his fifth German airplane, a German Albatros D.III fighter. Other "kills" quickly followed.
Barker's Sopwith Camel, serial number B6313, was to become the most successful fighter airplane in British history.
When his squadron was transferred to the Italian Front in late 1917, Barker took aim at Austrian air force. By April 1918, he had twenty-two victories. He also earned a reputation for taking down observation balloons, a deadly enterprise since the balloons were heavily protected by anti-aircraft guns.
In July, he was promoted to major and given command of the No. 139 Squadron.
Although the squadron flew the two-seater Bristol F.2b fighter and reconnaissance aircraft (also known as the "Brisfit"), Barker continued to prefer flying his cherished Sopwith Camel. When the Prince of Wales (later Edward VIII) visited the squadron in the summer of 1918, Barker took him aloft in a Brisfit, with the prince occupying the rear observer's seat. Barker flew the prince deep into enemy territory before returning to the Allied lines. Fortunately, although they encountered anti-aircraft fire from the ground, no Austrian airplane went up to challenge them.
By September 1918, he was a highly-decorated ace with at least forty-six victories to his credit.
Even more to his credit was the incredible achievement of not losing a single pilot or airplane under his escort during the previous year of active duty.
Ordered back to England to take command the flight school at Hounslow, Barker's greatest exploit, for which he was to earn the Victory Cross, was yet to come.
Arguing that he needed to reacquaint himself with the Western Front to do his job properly, he obtained a 10-day roving commission in France. On 27 October 1918, on the last day of his commission and only two weeks prior to the end of the war, he encountered a German reconnaissance airplane over the Forêt de Mormal while flying the new Sopwith 7F.1 Snipe.
Although Barker managed to down the two-seater craft, he made a rookie mistake and was caught unaware by a German fighter that had sneaked up behind him. He only found out that he was being pursued when his right leg was shattered by a bullet. Despite the pain, Barker managed to circle around the Fokker DVII, and bring it down too.
From there, things only got worse. Somehow during the dog fight with the Fokker, Barker had managed to stumble into an entire "circus" of German fighters. While accounts regarding the number of enemy aircraft vary from 15 to an incredible 60, Barker was vastly outnumbered. In front of thousands of Allied soldiers Barker managed to bring down two more German fighters but not before receiving crippling wounds to his left thigh and left elbow.
His Snipe, hit repeatedly, with its fuel tank shot away, crashed behind British lines. Barker, amazingly still alive, was pulled from the wreckage by Scottish troops. On 20 November 1918, he was awarded the Victory Cross for this epic, single-handed battle, and the congratulations of his grateful Sovereign, the Prince of Wales, and Sir Robert Borden, the Canadian Premier.
In early 1919, still recovering from his wounds, Barker flew again with the Prince of Wales, taking him on a tour of London by air. Barker needed canes to walk to the aircraft, and flew with his left arm strapped to his breast. Speaking of his flight, the Prince commented, "I have enjoyed it immensely but what a sensation it is when you go over backwards."
The RAF promoted Barker to Lieutenant Colonel.
On his return to Canada later that year, Barker entered civilian aviation in partnership with Billy Bishop. Together they operated an air-charter and aircraft maintenance firm located at Armour Heights Air Field in Toronto. In 1921, Barker married Jean Smith, the cousin of Billy Bishop. Their daughter Antoinette was born in 1923.
As was the case with many early civil aviation operations, Bishop-Barker Aeroplanes failed in 1922.
Barker then joined the Canadian Airforce (CAF) and was made commanding officer of Camp Borden. Subsequently, he was made acting director of the CAF, and for a time lived in Ottawa.
In 1924, with the establishment of the Royal Canadian Air Force, he was sent to England to act as the RCAF's liaison officer with the British Air Ministry.
He later studied at the RAF Staff College at Andover and saw service with the RAF in the Middle East.
In 1926, Barker resigned his commission from the RCAF, reportedly because he didn't get along with his commanding officer.
For a time, he operated a tobacco farm owned by his father-in-law, Horace B. Smith. This did not go well.
In 1927, Conn Smythe, the general manager of the Toronto Maple Leafs (himself a former RAF pilot), made Barker the team's first president. But civilian life did not come easy to the war hero. Like many veterans, he suffered from post-traumatic stress disorder. For a time, he turned to alcohol to quell his demons. His family life suffered.
In early 1930, things finally looked like they were turning around for him. He had just landed the job of vice president and general manager of the Fairchild Aviation Company of Canada in Montreal. The day of his death, he was in Ottawa to help sell the company's new trainer airplane, the two-person, Fairchild KR-21B biplane, to the Department of National Defence.
Wednesday, March 12, 1930, was a typical, late winter day in Ottawa. Weather conditions were good, with the wind out of the west, and a high temperature of 7 C.
The Fairchild trainer was flown from Montreal to the Rockcliffe aerodrome in the morning by Captain Donald Shaw, the Fairchild Company's test pilot. The trip was uneventful, with the airplane performing as it should. Shortly before 1 p.m., William Barker, who had travelled to Ottawa by train, decided to take the airplane up for a spin. He had never flown that model aircraft before but liked to take every opportunity to fly to maintain his competency. Apparently, until he joined the Fairchild Aviation Company two months earlier, he had done little flying since leaving the RCAF in 1926.
Barker seated himself in the real cockpit of the small trainer with registration marking CF-AKR. He warmed up his engine, taxied into the wind, and made a perfect take-off. After circling the airfield, he flew to the north-east across the Ottawa River to the Quebec side. Turning back towards the Rockcliffe aerodrome, something went wrong.
One observer, struck by the odd manner in which the airplane was performing, claimed that he had a premonition that something was about to happen.
Flying at an altitude of only a couple of hundred feet, the aircraft swerved and then plummeted straight down into the slushy ice of the Ottawa River, roughly 100 yards from the Rockcliffe slip, close to the aerodrome.
Striking the ice nose first, Barker's aircraft crashed onto its left side. The plane was a tangled wreck. One of the blades of the propeller was sheared off on impact, while the other was broken in two. The engine was jammed back into the fuselage by the force of the crash. Only the rear of the plane and its right wing were left relatively intact. Col. Barker was found still seated in the real cockpit, but he was beyond human help. His body had been crushed on impact, his head smashed against the dashboard of his control panel.
News of the accident flashed through a stunned Capital.
Immediately the Department of National Defence established a board of inquiry to examine the cause of the fatal crash.
The Board determined that the Fairchild trainer was airworthy before the crash, that weather conditions were good, and that Col. Barker was a "commercial pilot in good standing." Other than these basic facts, Board members had to depend on unreliable eye-witness testimony to draw their conclusions. Their verdict was pilot error.
Later, there was speculation that Barker, suffering from depression, may have killed himself. But there is no evidence to support this contention.
In many respects, the reasons for the crash remain a mystery.
Col. Barker's body was conveyed by train to the home of his father-in-law at 355 St. Clair Ave. W. in Toronto, where distinguished guests and friends paid their last respects.
On the Saturday afternoon after the accident, his body was brought to Toronto's Mount Pleasant Cemetery and was laid to rest in the Smith family mausoleum. Two thousand servicemen, representing all of the Toronto-area regiments, paraded in his honour. Immediately behind the casket walked family and friends, Ontario Premier Ferguson, Major General McNaughton, and a group of Victory Cross recipients. A warrant officer bore Col. Barker's medals on a cushion. More than 50,000 people lined the route of the funeral cortege down St. Clair Avenue to the cemetery. Overhead a flight of planes flew, each in turn swooping down to shower the procession with rose petals. At the mausoleum, Rev. Canon Broughall, rector of Grace-Church-on-the-Hill, officiated at a short service.
For decades, there was little way of a public memorial to Lieutenant- Colonel William Barker, V.C., buried as he was in the Smith family's mausoleum.
In 2011, his grandchildren righted this wrong. They erected a monument outside of the mausoleum, consisting of a bronze propeller blade rising from a granite base with a bronze picture of Barker and a plaque noting his distinction as "The most decorated war hero in the history of Canada and the British Empire." There for the official unveiling of the memorial was Barker's descendants and the Lieutenant Governor of Ontario, David Onley. Overhead, two vintage planes, one of them a Sopwith Snipe, and a CF-18 fighter flew a salute while a bugler sounded The Last Post.